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Search Menu Abstract This study examines the relationship between use of Facebook, a popular online social network site, and the formation and maintenance of social capital. In addition, Facebook usage was found to interact with measures of psychological well-being, suggesting that it might provide greater benefits for users experiencing low self-esteem and low life satisfaction.
Introduction Social network sites SNSs such as such as Friendster, CyWorld, and MySpace allow individuals to present themselves, articulate their social networks, and establish or maintain connections with others. These sites can be oriented towards work-related contexts e. Participants may use the sites to interact with people they already know offline or to meet new people.
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Facebook constitutes a rich site for researchers interested in the affordances of social networks due to its heavy usage patterns and technological capacities that bridge online and offline connections. We believe that Facebook represents an understudied offline to online trend in that it originally primarily served a geographically-bound community the campus.
When data were collected for this study, membership was restricted to people with a specific host institution email address, further tying offline networks to online membership. In this sense, the original incarnation of Facebook was similar to the wired Toronto neighborhood studied by Hampton and Wellman e.
Online SNSs v lke online earnings login both the maintenance of existing social ties and the formation of new connections.
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A hallmark of this early research is the presumption that when online and offline social networks overlapped, the directionality was online to offline—online connections resulted in face-to-face meetings. For instance, Parks and Floyd report that one-third of their respondents later met their online correspondents face-to-face.
However, because there is little empirical research that addresses whether members use SNSs to maintain existing ties or to form new ones, the social capital implications of these services are unknown.
An Overview of Facebook Created inby Facebook was reported to have more than 21 million registered members generating 1.
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Capitalizing on its success among college students, Facebook launched a high school version in early September Inthe company introduced communities for commercial organizations; as of Novemberalmost 22, organizations had Facebook directories Smith, InFacebook was used at over 2, United States colleges and was the seventh most popular site on the World Wide Web with respect to total page views Cassidy, Much of the existing academic research on Facebook has focused on identity presentation and privacy concerns e.
Looking at the amount of information Facebook participants provide about themselves, the relatively open nature of the information, and the lack of privacy controls enacted by the users, Gross and Acquisti argue that users may be putting themselves at risk both offline e.
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We use Facebook as a research context in order to determine whether offline social capital can be generated by online tools. The results of our study show that Facebook use among college-age respondents was significantly associated with measures of social capital. Literature Review Social Capital: Online and Offline Social capital broadly refers to the resources accumulated through the relationships among people Coleman, The resources from these relationships can differ in form and function based on the relationships themselves.
According to several measures of social capital, this important resource has been declining in the U. When social capital declines, a community experiences increased social disorder, reduced participation in civic activities, and potentially more distrust among community members. Greater social capital increases commitment to a community and the ability to mobilize collective actions, among other benefits.
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For individuals, social capital allows a person to draw on resources from other members of the networks to which he or she belongs. These resources can take the form of useful information, personal relationships, or the capacity to organize groups Paxton, Putnam how much you can earn bitcoin between bridging and bonding social capital.
Alternatively, bonding social capital is found between individuals in tightly-knit, emotionally close relationships, such as family and close friends. After briefly describing the extant literature on these two forms of social capital and the Internet, we introduce an additional dimension of social capital that speaks to the ability to maintain valuable connections as one progresses through life changes.
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Social Capital and the Internet The Internet has been linked both to increases and decreases in social capital. Indeed, studies of physical e. Recently, researchers have emphasized the importance of Internet-based linkages for the formation of weak ties, which serve as the foundation of bridging social capital.
Because online relationships may be supported by technologies like distribution lists, photo directories, and search capabilities V lke online earnings login,it is possible that new forms of social capital and relationship building will occur in online social network sites.
Donath and boyd hypothesize that SNSs could greatly increase the weak ties one could form and maintain, because the technology is well-suited to maintaining such ties cheaply and easily. However, it is unclear how social capital formation occurs when online and offline connections are closely coupled, as with Facebook.
Williams argues that although researchers have examined potential losses of social capital in offline communities due to increased Internet use, they have not adequately explored online gains that might compensate for this. Online social network tools may be of particular utility for individuals who otherwise have difficulties forming and maintaining both strong and weak ties.
Maintained Social Capital and Life Changes Social networks change over binary options with touch as relationships are formed or abandoned.
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Putnam argues that one of the possible causes of decreased social capital in the U. Wellman et al. Internet technologies feature prominently in a study of communication technology use by this population by Cummings, Lee, and V lke online earnings loginwho found that services like email and instant messaging help college students remain close to their high school friends after they leave home for college.
We therefore introduce a measure focusing specifically on the maintenance of existing social capital after this major life change experienced by college students, focusing on their ability to leverage and maintain social connections from high school.
Young adults moving to college need to create new networks at college. However, they often leave friends from high school with whom they may have established rich networks; completely abandoning these high school networks would mean a loss of social capital.
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Granovetterhas suggested that weak ties provide more benefit when the weak tie is not associated with stronger ties, as may be the case for maintained high school relationships. To test the role of maintained high school relationships as weak, bridging ties, we adapted questions about general bridging relationships, such as those in Williamsto be specific to maintained relationships with high school acquaintances as opposed to close friends.
All students were sent an email invitation from one of the authors, with a short description of the study, information about confidentiality and incentives, and a link to the survey.
Two reminder emails were sent to those who had not responded.
Only undergraduate users were included in our sampling frame. A total of students completed the online survey, yielding a response rate of Demographic information about non-responders was not available; therefore we do not know whether a bias existed in regards to survey participation. However, when we compare the demographics of our sample to information we have about the MSU undergraduate population as a whole, our sample appears to be representative with a few exceptions.
Female, younger, in-state, and on-campus students were slightly overrepresented in our sample.