How Is the Pricing Determined for Stock Options? | Finance - Zacks

Option price determination

Time to expiration, volatility, and interest rates form extrinsic value. The option price, or premium, is option price determination sum of intrinsic and extrinsic value. The same rule, but in reverse, is true of put contracts.

We want the option contracts that we sell to eventually expire worthless, and this only occurs if the option does not have intrinsic value. Stock Price The stock price of the underlying asset is the first input into the model.

If we think of options as insurance contracts, a more expensive stock requires a greater insurance premium to cover larger damages. Stock price fluctuations also affect option premiums.

What Is the Value of a Call or Put Option?

For call options, as the stock price goes up, call premiums go up. As the stock price goes down, call premiums also go down. For put options, however, as the stock price goes up, put premiums go down.

Effects of Stock Pinning on Option Prices When you buy a stock option, you gain control over the underlying stock for a fixed period of time, but you don't actually own the stock. Instead, you pay a premium for the right to purchase the stock for a set price, called the strike price, through the expiration date. How the price you pay for that option is determined depends on a number of factors.

Lastly, as the stock price goes down, put premiums go up. Stock price direction is random, so this input into the model is the least predictable. We do not try to binary option from scratch stock direction because we do not have an edge here.

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As we continue through the other inputs into the model, we will see how we can use options to our advantage. Strike Price The strike price is the price at which the option buyer and seller agree to buy or sell stock.

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The strike price in relation to the stock real chart of options determine intrinsic value, as described earlier.

Extrinsic Value Time to expiration, volatility, and interest rates make up the extrinsic value of an option. As options sellers, extrinsic value is where we put our focus. An option without any intrinsic value can still have value because of the extrinsic portion of the option price. Options without any intrinsic value can still have value because of the chance that it will gain intrinsic value in the future.

Time to Expiration Time to expiration is the third factor for option pricing. Time to expiration is how many days that remain in the life of the contract.

An option contract with more days until expiration will have a higher premium, all else being equal.

Option Pricing Theory

If we think of option contracts as insurance policies, the more time there is until the policy expires, the greater the chance that an accident will occur. Similarly, more time until expiration equals a greater chance the option seller will have to make good on the contract.

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An option seller, like an insurance seller, will require a higher option premium to be fairly compensated for the added risk of duration. When buying options, time works against you. With every day that ticks by, the option contract loses value. This is one of the reasons we at Option Posts choose to be option sellers.

As option sellers, we let time work in our favor. Each day that goes and the option contract that we sold loses value, we can eventually buy it back at a lower price for a profit. Volatility Volatility is how much movement a stock price has during a certain timeframe.

For an options seller, volatility is the most important factor to consider, and it is where we gain an edge in the market.

Valuation of options

All else being equal, a stock with high volatility will have higher option premium. Volatility plays a factor into the price of an option because a more volatile the stock, the greater the chance that the option contract will become valuable to the option buyer.

The option buyer must pay for this advantage.

  • Option pricing theory uses variables stock price, exercise price, volatility, interest rate, time to expiration to theoretically value an option.
  • As a result, time value is often referred to as an option's extrinsic value since time value is the amount by which the price of an option exceeds the intrinsic value.
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At Option Posts, we sell options in order to take advantage of a few characteristics of volatility. When volatility is high, option prices will also be high because there is greater uncertainty.

In this type of environment, we can sell more expensive options.

How Are Option Prices Determined?

As option sellers, we want to sell what is more expensive. Volatility tends to revert to the mean or average; high volatility tends to fall back to the mean. When this occurs, options prices subsequently decrease, which is good for options sellers because we can later close our position for a profit. Interest Rates Interest rates are the last input into the option pricing model, but rarely make a difference for short-term trades. Increasing interest rates increase the price of call options, but lower the price of put options.

Understanding How Options Are Priced

Interest rates affect the price of options because they simulate leverage and borrowing. Option contracts represent ownership of shares of stock. Bottom Line The main five factors which factor into option pricing all boil down to intrinsic and extrinsic value.

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Intrinsic value is determined by the stock price and the strike price. As options sellers, we want our option premiums to become worthless, so we do not option price determination intrinsic value.

On the other hand, extrinsic value, determined by time to expiration, volatility and interest option price determination, is what keeps options sellers in business through time decay and volatility.

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Understanding option pricing is a key aspect of successful options trading. Check out how the Greeks tie into option pricing here. Thank You For Reading! If this explanation of how options are priced was at all helpful, let us know in the comment section below! Related Posts.