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Trapezoidal trace Cross-section of a Brialmont fort The final traditional siege of a fortress in Europe took place at Antwerp in options strategy forts, when French high-angle artillery ignored the bastions of the city's citadel and destroyed its interior area.

Artillery continued to evolve until, in the s, it became rifled. Artillery was now more powerful, more accurate, and could be used from greater distances. Combined with delayed fuzesthe shells were able to explode underground, next to the fort's masonry and destroy it.

Bastion forts — the tradition in European defences for a century — were now totally obsolete.

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Options strategy forts response to artillery's increased reach, military architects began in the s to build detached polygonal forts farther away from cities to protect them from bombardment. To counter its new destructive power, architects began making those forts more durable. The success of ironclad warships in the Crimean War inspired the other innovations of Mougin's design: gun turrets and metal armour. The ring forts were placed away from ravines or depressions that could conceal attackers.

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There just two traces, a triangular or a trapezoidal shape, depending on the terrain. The fort structures were regimented similarly. There were three plans for the gorges and two for the central bunkerits casematesand connecting galleries. The Meuse fortresses would be the first to be built entirely of concrete. Construction began on 28 July with the clearing and excavation of the sites and building of storage and work structures.

As a response to the melinite tests, he covered the masonry in the walls with a thick layer of concrete which itself was then covered with 3 metres 9. Once dry, mortar would be brushed over the concrete until smoothed on the interior, and covered in soil on the exterior.

The vulnerability of a structure determined the thickness of the concrete protecting it; the gorge wall of a barrack was 1. Protection against infantry was offered by a sea of barbed wire on the glacis around the ditch and the casemates of the gorge, housing 5. These troops were also to be mustered in the massif for a sortie in case of a hostile infantry assault.

Compounding the deficit between modern artillery and the Meuse forts was that concrete could not be poured at night because of a lack of illumination equipment. The consequences of this were severe. The explosion that annihilated the Fort de Loncin in August dislocated many different layers of concrete, resulting in immense damage to the entire fort.

The concrete options strategy forts armour around the windows would be thus eroded until shells were exploding inside the barracks, forcing the garrison deeper within.

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While smaller turrets could completely retract into the fortress, larger-calibre guns could not because of the length of their barrels. A steel collar protected the lip of the turret well and prevented the displacement of the turret in case the nearby concrete was damaged.

According to Brialmont's specifications, a gun options strategy forts could make a complete rotation in 1.

Once the right angle and elevation was found, a brake was engaged to hold the turret in place.

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The turret was kept under negative pressure using a manual ventilator to expel fumes from the gun and to keep fumes from incoming shells out of the fort. In case of a malfunction, a gun could be removed and replaced within a few hours. Munitions were held beneath the turrets in separate form and without cartridge casings for larger-calibre guns and in a complete shell for 5.

Every one of the Meuse forts' guns used black powder and were never modified to use a smokeless alternative.

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These were usually mounted on a wheeled triangular carriage but sometimes in turret form. In large forts, there were nine 5. In small forts, there were also nine 5.

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Four were placed in gorge ditch casemates near the entrance, while another defended the ramp. Trapezoidal forts of either size had two of their nine 5. Large forts had four 5. These all contained a singe gun, crewed by six men, and exclusively fired grapeshot. The casemate guns were produced by Cockerill and Kruppwhile the turret versions were manufactured by Gruson. During peacetime, they lived in temporary wooden barracks on the surface that were to be dismantled or burned if war broke out.

During hostilities the garrison moved into the gorge caserneeight to twelve men to a room. Power was supplied by a steam engine apparatus in the lower levels of a fort's massif, although petrol lamps lit most of a fort.

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The primary means of communication between the forts were above telegraph or telephone fires operated by civilians. Latrines were poorly planned and ventilation nonexistent, except at the Fort de Loncin. The drainage system was also poorly designed.

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Water was pulled from underground wells or collected during and after rains in a cistern to be used by the fort. The forts were known to have shortcomings in their ability to resist heavy artillery, and had never been modernised. The forts had never been designed to resist such heavy artillery. The bombardment exposed the forts' shortcomings in living arrangements, sanitation, ventilation, construction and protection, culminating with the explosion of the Fort de Loncin under bombardment.

Even before this the forts had begun to surrender one binary options new one as they became uninhabitable and unable to respond to attack.

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Left to themselves, the forts were planned to resist a siege for about a month, based on estimates made in It was therefore a surprise that the forts resisted as long and as successfully as they did. However, the forts' poor ability to deal with powder gases, pulverized dust and the stench from inadequate sanitary facilities became a determining factor in the endurance of the forts' garrisons.

None of the forts, apart from the Fort de Loncinpossessed forced ventilation.

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This had profound effects on the forts' ability to endure a long assault. These service areas were placed directly opposite the barracks, which opened into the ditch in the rear of the fort i. This arrangement was calculated to place a weaker side to the rear to allow for recapture by Belgian forces from the rear, and in an age where mechanical ventilation was in its infancy, allowed natural ventilation of living quarters and support areas. However, the concept proved disastrous in practice.

Heavy shellfire made the rear ditch untenable, and German forces were able to get between the forts and attack them from the rear.

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The massive German bombardments drove men into the central massif, where there were insufficient sanitary facilities for men, rendering the air unbreathable, while the German artillery destroyed the forts from above and from the rear. The battle revealed shortcomings in the performance of the is an option possible in ooo and in the Belgian strategy. The forts themselves suffered from inherent weakness of construction through poor understanding of concrete technology, as well as overall inadequate protection for the garrison and ammunition stores from heavy-caliber artillery bombardment.

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Unbreathable air from bombardment, the fort's own gun gases and from human waste compelled the surrender of most of the positions. However, the days-long delay caused by the fortress ring allowed the Belgian, and more importantly, the French armies to complete their quick earnings upon opening. The report recommended the construction of a line of new fortifications to the east of the Meuse.

Work was seriously delayed by budget crises, forcing work on all fortifications but Eben-Emael to be delayed. PFL I: Four modern forts supported by bunkers. There were 62 infantry shelters and 6 forts in this section.

It was not possible to repair the Fort de Loncin, which had been completely destroyed by its own magazines in Generating plants, ventilation, sanitation and troop accommodations were improved, as well as communications. The work incorporated alterations that had already been made by the Germans during their occupation of the forts in World War I. Most notably, the upgraded forts received defended air intake towers, intended to look like water towers, that could function as observation posts and emergency exits.

Fort Eben-Emael was positioned to defend the water obstacle of the Albert Canal and to anchor the northern end of the line, with a field options strategy forts fire all the way north to Maastricht. The Fort de Battice occupied the second strategic point on the options strategy forts road and rail lines from Aachen.

The big forts had as many as men, the smaller The sheer face also provided a naturally-defended location for the fort's air intakes.

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The new forts featured extreme levels of concrete and armour protection, with between 3. Learning from World War I, the intervals between forts were liberally supplied with observation positions and infantry shelters. It naturally attracted the first German attacks. Its enormous dimensions dictated options strategy forts unconventional attack strategy, using airborne troops. The fort was attacked on 10 May and rendered ineffective in a few hours by a team of 75 men armed with new shaped-charge explosives.

Ineffective Belgian defense of the fort's surface allowed the German assault team to use their explosive charges to destroy or render the fort's gun turrets and machine gun cloches uninhabitable. Isolated, the forts fought on. On 18 May Fort de Barchon was assaulted by the same infantry battalion that had attacked Eben-Emael, supported by a mm options strategy forts.

The other forts to the south were bypassed and surrendered on 28 May, part of the general Belgian surrender.