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Within an educational setting, a token economy is a system for providing positive reinforcement to a child or children by giving them tokens for completing tasks or behaving in desired ways. How does a Token Economy work? The basic "cycle" of a token economy.
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The target behaviours could be anything. For example, completing academic tasks like getting a certain amount of spellings correct, or it could be saying hello to their teacher in the morning, or playing nicely with their peers. What a target behaviour will be depends on each individual child. What is a Back-Up Reinforcer? A backup reinforcer is an activity, item or privilege that the child likes and enjoys.
The token economy works because the tokens become paired with the earning of the back-up reinforcers and the child only gets tokens for engaging in desired behaviours Miltenberger, Therefore the target behaviours should occur more often.
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There is no one single type of token economy chart. Some will have a space where an image of something being earned - a reinforcer - can be placed as in the image belowothers will have space to write down what is being earned while others will be used only to record how many tokens have been earned. For token charts where there is no place for a reinforcer there will typically be some method of choosing from a group of possible reinforcers once the chart is filled up or there might be a list of reinforcers that all "cost" different amounts and it is up to the student to decide when they want to trade in their tokens for a specific reinforcer.
One example of a token economy chart with space to place a PECS sized reinforcer and twelve tokens.
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Money is a type of Token The world economy where people go to work, do their job to earn money and then spend this money for things they want or need is pretty much identical to a classroom token economy. What you really want is what you buy with your money because getting money means you get desired items how many tokens are needed activities e. For a classroom token economy, a child will go to school, complete academic tasks to earn tokens and then spend these tokens for back-up reinforcers.
Just like our money, the tokens are a means to an end — getting tokens means getting things the child wants e. Comparing the world economy to a classroom token economy.
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What can be used as tokens? Some token economies do use physical objects such as poker chips, printed cards with how many tokens are needed faces, fake money or even marbles. However, not all tokens are like this, some might just use a tick on a sheet of paper, a hole punched in a card or a stamp put onto a card Foxx, In addition, tokens provide a visible record of improvement.
This may facilitate social reinforcement from staff members, as well as self-reinforcement.
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A token economy is structured therefore there will be consistency with how positive reinforcement is delivered for target behaviours. Things to Consider with a Token Economy If an economy is being implemented at a large scaleacross a group of individuals and settings, it may be time consuming and take a lot of effort to organise where you can make money a day train staff to correctly implement it.
Depending on the preferred backup reinforcers, it may be costly to purchase them. Seven Components of a Token Economy Miltenbergerp. These are: 'The desirable target behaviours to be strengthened.
The tokens to be used as conditioned reinforcers. The backup reinforcers to be exchanged for tokens. A reinforcement schedule for token delivery. How many tokens are needed to be exchanged for the backup reinforcers. A time and place for exchanging tokens for backup reinforcers.
In some cases, a response cost component, in which the undesirable target behaviours to be eliminated are identified, together with the rate of token loss for each instance of these behaviours. One-to-One Token Economy Example Tarbox, Ghezzi and Wilson investigated the use of token economies in an effort to increase the eye contact of a 5 year old boy called Adam who was diagnosed with autism. Backup Reinforcers: a 90 second break from academic tasks where he could play with preferred toys of his choice.
Reinforcement Schedule: Adam received 1 token every single time he engaged in the target behaviour made eye contact for 3 seconds.
Rate of Token Exchange for Reinforcers: a total of 10 tokens were required before Adam could earn a backup reinforcer.
Time and Place to Exchange Tokens for Backup Reinforcers: this was done immediately after 10 tokens had been earned.
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It was completed at the classroom desk. Response Cost: they did not use a response cost.
A response cost is a penalty or fine where how many tokens are needed are taken away from the child for breaking rules or engaging in inappropriate behaviours. Much like breaking a law such as driving over the speed limit and being fined money for it by the police. Additionally, a response cost should never be used if a child does not already have tokens.
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This is because the tokens are not naturally occurring reinforcers. The money you earn by going to work is a form of conditioned reinforcement because the money itself is not naturally reinforcing. It is the fact that you can use this money to get desired items and activities like a house, food, cars or holidays.
To expand a little more, imagine you go to work and get given some plastic tokens at the end of the day.
In other words, getting tokens leads to getting a day off work while no tokens means no day off. In the case of school children, the tokens serve as a way of gaining access to preferred items and activities — therefore, getting tokens leads to getting activities and no tokens means no activities.
The money earned through employment is a form of generalised conditioned reinforcement because you can buy any number of things with it.
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This is not always the case though. Sometimes a programme may be implemented where a specific type of token e. Related Content.