Remote livelihood binary options
Dependent Variables The study considered two livelihood strategies or activities in pastoral area, including pure pastoralist and agro pastoralist as a dependent variables.
Remote livelihood binary options the choice of the household lies in livelihood strategies, rational household head chooses between the two mutually exclusive livelihood strategy alternatives that remote livelihood binary options the maximum utility.
The survival, number and condition of livestock determine the household's wealth and the ability to continue its livelihood pattern. Agro-pastoral livelihoods: it combines extensive livestock rearing and rain-fed cereal production sorghum, wheat, maize, barley, teff and other cereals for household consumption. Independent Variables As indicated in Table 2it hypothesized that the livelihood strategies were a function of a set of factors that included in the model.
The independent variables included in the models and hypothesized are ages of the household head, sex of household head, total family size of the household, education status of the household head, dependency ratio of the household, access to credit, livestock holding, total farm land size, asset value, membership of Cooperative, access to Mass Media, access to veterinary extension service, distance to market, access to electricity, access to range land and access to irrigation.
Table 2. Summary of independent variables. Result and Discussion 3. Household Livelihood Strategies In the study area, pastorals have adopted two different strategies to achieve their livelihood outcomes. These are pure pastoralist and agro pastoralist strategies.
Other means of livelihood strategies are not well organised and enhanced in the community. Table 3 gives a breakdown of the different livelihood strategies that households pursue in the study area. As observed from Table 3the survey result about The remaining, parts of the respondents The agro pastoralist activities help pastoral household to fill income and food gap that pure pastoral activities unable to do. Diagrammatically, the break down is indicate as the follows in the pie chart Figure 2.
From Table 3 and Figure 2we can conclude that, most of the pastoral household heads are engaged in pure pastoralist livestock rearing activities rather than diversifying in the agro pastoral and related non-pastoral livelihood activities. Mean Comparison of Household Livelihood Strategies In order to determine whether the mean difference between two groups is statistically and significantly different from zero employed independent t-test because independent variable has related group.
Table 3. Source: own survey.
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Figure 2. Livelihood strategies in the study area. Source: own survey data The two groups differ to some extent in their Sex, age, family size, education status, dependency ratio, tropical livestock unit of holding TLUasset value, membership of cooperatives, access to mass media, access to credit, distance from the nearest market, access to electricity, access to irrigation, total farm land size and access to rangeland.
The participant and non-participant mean of pure pastoralist and agro pastoralist strategies differ from variables to variables. Table 4. Non-participant and Participant of livelihood strategies. Determinant of Livelihood Strategies As shown in Table 5the bivariate probit model estimate result revealed among 16 hypothesized explanatory variables ten variables for both pure pastoralist and agro-pastoralist found to be significantly influenced choice of livelihood strategies.
However, the magnitude effect of some significant variables is not similar for the two livelihood strategies. Some may be highly significant to affect the choice of a strategy and may be insignificant for the other. Therefore, bivariate probit analysis results indicate selection of each type of livelihood strategy affected by different factors and at different levels of significance by the same factor Table 5.
It has noted that the bivariate probit estimates are report for two categories of livelihood strategies choice. The first alternative i.
It is a continuous variable. This implies that pure pastoralist and agro pastoralist, whose age is relatively younger, could be pushed to engage in other non-pastoral activities.
Additionally, elder participation in different livelihood options is lower as compared to the young generation due to their weak physical performance.
Wassie et al. Family size is remote livelihood binary options important factor for the choice of livelihood option.
This is because of a big family size needs more resources for sustenance than a small family. People with big families will venture into as Table 5.
Results of bivariate probit analysis. The result is in line with Asfaw Albore . Dependency ratio what binary options use real stock charts the household DPRHH : It is continuous variable and it refers to the proportion of economically inactive labour force less than 14 and above 65 years old to the active labour force Between 15 and 65 years old with in a household.
In the pastoral area, having large livestock is considered as indication of asset and male household has owned more than one wife and using contraceptive method is considered as sine. This leads to bear a number of inactive labours in the household. As household member of inactive labour force increases by a ratio, the likely probability of the household needing more food for survival increases and the ability to meet their subsistence needs declines.
Therefore, in order to fulfil the needs of the household members; households are induced to increase remote livelihood binary options level of income remote livelihood binary options choice of livelihood strategies. The result of this study is consistent with the study of Bassie . This is because household having larger size of livestock are less likely to diversify the livelihood strategies into other non-pastoral activities compared to those who own small number of TLUs.
Households owning more number of livestock considered as wealthy household in the community. This result is consistent with the finding study of Melese et al. This is because as access to media such as TV and radio enhances non-pastoral activities information, which enables that the pastoral households to participate in different livelihood options.
This result is consistent with the finding study of Emanuel . Markets play an important role in pastoral communities as place of sale for his or her livestock and its product and buy other necessary input.
This suggests the probability of people to choice other livelihood strategies beyond the pure pastoralist and agro pastoralist is probably going to be reduced because the distance increase. This is often because individuals who live near the market area had higher probability to remote livelihood binary options on other livelihood option beyond agriculture including; wage labourer and petty trade.
The possible reason for the result could be that households far away from the market center will have not any easy and quick physical access to the market to move amount produced. In this study area, the pastoralist kebeles are in accessible road and located at a distance from center of the district.
The result is in line with the findings of Tessema . This suggests Access, use and adoption of recent technology regarding to pastoral livelihood is very suffering from access of electricity. Electricity also had an impact on access to information. The foremost frequently bought electrical appliances after connection were TVs, radios and mobile phones and another major effect of electrification was that it significantly reduced expenditures on energy.
Within the study area, there are high black market electronics exchange and entrance to the middle of the zone.
Supported electronics exchange and entrance pastoral household of the study area having access to rural electrification service have choice to shift their livelihood to non-pastoral activity like petty trade on electronics, mobiles, etc.
Access to Irrigation IRRGT : Irrigation benefits the farm households through higher production, higher yields, lower risk of failure, and better and year-round farm returns .
This meant that, households that were access to irrigation engaged in additional livelihood strategies than those located from inaccessible.
Hence, better access to irrigable water resources would increase the return on capital land which could probably increase the return from labour and, make the farmer happier in his remote livelihood binary options position, hence, reduces the subsistence pressure to participating in several livelihood activities.
The result is in line with the findings of Velasco et al. If remote livelihood binary options of accessibility, they engaged in agro pastoralist and other non-pastoralist livelihood strategies.
The farm land size is an impact on crop production and when Land-man ratio being the per capita availability of cultivable land, a decrease in its value creates overpressure on land which in turn results in disguised unemployment in agriculture i.
The possible reason for this is that with smaller land size are involved in other non-pastoral activities because of shortage of land to support their livelihood. Adugna  agree this result with previous studies. Renewable plant resources provide forage for ruminant livestock like cattle, sheep, and goats; and thus the ruminant animals subsequently provide food and fiber for people.
This is because of accessibility of rangeland leads the pastoral household have own large amount of livestock that have the main asset of in the areas. The household is not interesting to search other option of livelihood option. Conclusions and Recommendations 4. Conclusion Pure Pastoralist is the dominant economic activity and the primary source of livelihoods for pastoral households in the study area.
However, due to recurrent drought and frequent climate change, the livestock production has been deteriorating over time, and has forced people to look for alternative employment option other than support and resistance lines binary options indicators rearing.
A significant number of pastoral households engage in diverse livelihood strategies away from purely livestock production Pure Pastoralist towards agro Pastoralist jointly crop production and livestock rearing activities that are undertaken to broaden and generate additional income for survival and livelihood improvement.
From the finding of the research, it is increasingly becoming clear that the pure Pastoralist alone cannot rely upon as the core activity for pastoral households as a means of improving livelihood in the study area. Bivariate probit regression model applied to analyze and answer the questions why pastoral households pursue diverse livelihood strategies, which strategies are sustainable for household in the area.
These variables include family size, dependency ratio, access to mass media, access to electricity, access to irrigation, remote livelihood binary options of household, tropical livestock unit of holding, distance from the nearest market, total farmland size and access to rangeland. The finding of this study shows that family size, dependency ratio, access to mass media, access to electricity and access to irrigation have positively significant influence on choice of livelihood strategies.
However, age of household, tropical livestock unit of holding, distance from the nearest market, total farmland size and access to rangeland were negatively significant effects and influences on choice of livelihood strategies. In addition to the above in this area, there is low technical and financial support to the existing and newly organized small-scale enterprises to engage in milk processing, grain mill operation, trade of livestock, cattle fattening, handcrafts, and petty trade as a means of livelihood strategies.
Recommendation Based on the findings of the study, the following policy recommendations are possible areas of intervention that might help to choose the best alternative livelihood strategies in the study area.
The negative and significant influences of age of household on Pastoralist livelihood strategies imply that elder age pastoral household participation is lower as compared to the young generation due to their weak physical performance. However, households travel long distance with livestock for the search of water and pasture but as the age becomes older and older, physical deterioration happens and resigns from pastoral livelihood by replacing younger.
Thus the government and other responsible bodies consider this situation and design a livelihood policy strategy or package that benefits elder age pastoral households because it became a burden for household members. The positive and significant influence of family size on pastoral livelihood strategies implies that remote livelihood binary options the large family size of household increases needs of more resources for sustenance than a small family.
This situation leads pastoral households to search other options of livelihood activities other than Pastoralist to survive their family members.
In this regard, awareness creation and provision of family planning services are mandatory by local government bodies and non-government remote livelihood binary options that have intervention in area.
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The negative and significant influences of tropical livestock unit on Pastoralist livelihood strategies implies that large livestock herd size creates better opportunity to earn more income from livestock production and household are not willing to investigate other option of livelihood activities.
Thus, the significant role of livestock ownership in livelihood security suggests to design development strategy for livestock sector through improving livestock breeds, veterinary services, forage development, marketing, access to credit and overall management of livestock production that aimed at improving pastoral household welfare in general and food security status in particular.
In addition, Small-scale enterprises that performed by women that include milk processing, grain mill operation, trade of livestock, cattle fattening, handcrafts, and petty trade require technical and financial support therefore provision of training and credit service is highly important to enhance more opportunities of livelihood diversification. The positive effect of access to mass media on the choice of livelihood strategy calls policies and specific interventions that facilitate access to climate information and knowledge through mass media, mobile or social networks will likely improve pastoral awareness of climate change and adoption of adaptive strategies.
Additionally access to media leads pastoral household to participate on non-pastoral activities other than pastoral livelihood strategies. To ensure greater uptake, this information should designed in a way that tailored to the interests of the pastoralists and agro-pastoralists in remote livelihood binary options of content, language, and format.
The negative influence of distance to market on pastoral livelihood strategies implies that the probability of individuals to choice other livelihood strategies beyond the pure pastoralist and agro pastoralist is likely to be reduced as the distance increase. Market distance and related transport costs are the major factors hindering pastoralists from providing their product to the markets.
Thus, provision of public facilities such as construction of roads and infrastructure in the remote livelihood binary options areas facilitate transportation and operations that solve some of the problems of pastoral risks such as lack of market for cattle.
Therefore, focus should pay on improving paypal make money access to pastoralists. In this regard, Special attention has taken to establish pastoral cooperatives and creating linkages with urban areas as well as international market. The positive effect of access to rural electrification on pastoral livelihood strategies implies that as access to rural electrification increases pastoral house hold search other option of livelihood other than Pastoralist.
Thus, expansion rural electrification infrastructure and services leads household to engage on electronics petty trade since the study area is adjacent to Ethiopian Somalia there is high amount of electronics transaction. This contributes for reduction of dependency of pastoral household on livestock and transform to other employment opportunities. Therefore, government and development partners give attention for expansion of rural electrification to reduce impact of drought and climate variability that happen on pastoral livelihood strategies.
The negative and significant impact of farm size on remote livelihood binary options livelihood strategies suggests concerned bodies to develop appropriate strategies and policies especially for land resource-poor farmers. It also concerns promoting and creating positive environment for the emerging livelihood alternatives like non-farm activities. The presence of very small size of land calls for giving emphasis in agricultural intensification to enhance the productivity of the land so that generate adequate income and food.
Conflict of Interest The authors would like to declare that they have no interest of conflict and we want to disclose you that it is our original research work. References 1. Report on the Ethiopia Economy, Addis Ababa. Pastoralism Forum Ethiopia, et al. Yin, R. Bless, C. An African Perspective. Leedy, P.
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